Planing machines are used in the process of processing a wooden surface to give the workpiece the desired shape and configuration. After using the best wood planers, the surface of the product is perfectly smooth, free of burrs. Note that with the help of horizontal planing machines, preliminary surface treatment is carried out before further work on the thickness machine.
The principle of operation and design of the machine
Planing machines are used in the process of manufacturing parquet, baguettes, cornices, as well as for sawing “clean”. Using such a machine, it is possible to process any ruled surface: horizontal, vertical, inclined, located at different angles.
The main nodes of the planing tool:
- Bed – a metal base of the machine
- Knife shaft
The working surface of the machine is divided into two parts: movable and fixed. A knife shaft moves between these parts, the task of which is to cut off the parts of the workpiece. While moving around the desktop, the workpiece is held by rollers. All modern machines have safety features: special covers, safety buttons, protective barriers.
The wood planing machine is equipped with knives that are mounted on a shaft. Knives for the planer can be present in the amount of two or three pieces. Three knives significantly improve the quality of processing, and also make the shaft more balanced. Changing sets of knives allows you to work with both soft (spruce, pine) and hard varieties of timber (oak, poplar, beech).
All types of planers have a guide bar that allows you to adjust the angle of inclination. The entire design of this device is stiff and massive, as a result of which an insignificant level of vibration is observed. Planing machines have a special pipe for connecting a vacuum cleaner that collects chips. Thanks to this, the workplace is always clean, the number of stops for cleaning the machine is reduced. Also, the master is protected from the harmful effects of wood dust.
There are two types of planers:
Often, compact desktop machines are chosen by craftsmen for use in-home or small workshops, while stationary options are used in large woodworking enterprises. And the cost of desktop equipment is significantly lower than stationary.
The main node of the cross-planing machine is a bed on which there are horizontal guides guaranteeing movement in the longitudinal plane of the slide with the support. The vertical guide rails of the bed guarantee movement of the cross-member along which a table with a stand moves to guarantee a high level of stability. The workpiece is mounted on the horizontal and vertical supporting surfaces of the table in special T-shaped grooves. But the cutter is in a special holder, which is located on the support.
The basic rectilinear reciprocating motion is transmitted to the slider having a cutter. During the planing of horizontal planes, the feed movement is transmitted to the workpiece, which moves with the table along the guide rails. To plan the vertical and inclined surfaces, the feed takes place by moving the caliper along the vertical guides.
The bed of such a tool consists of a cast-iron case in the form of a box, which is mounted on a plate mounted to the foundation with fixing bolts. Internal stiffeners allow achieving a high rate of rigidity and strength of the frame. At the same time, in the upper part of the bed, there are flat horizontal guides to which strips are attached to the screws, forming guides of the “swallowtail” type. Such guides help the slider to move and provide a tight fit of this machine by adjusting one of the guide bars with screws on the side of the bed.
On the front wall of the bed, there are flat guides that provide vertical movement of the table holding cross member. Inside the frame, there is a gearbox and a rocker mechanism, the installation, and repair of which can be carried out through special holes and hatches, with covers installed in the stacks of the frame.
Such a machine is powered by an electric motor that transmits the rotation of a six-speed gearbox to a shaft equipped with a sliding bolt.
The main components of such a machine:
The traverse helps to carry out the vertical movement of the two calipers, while the vertical guide beds are responsible for the movement of the side caliper. The main working movement is provided by the electric motor of the equipment with the help of a worm-rack drive on the table.
Calipers move along the guides of the traverse and bed with the help of special electric motors, which are designed to implement this particular operation. All calipers have a system of the fastest possible movement, as well as structural devices to automatically raise the cutter at the end of the working stroke. Also, the traverse of the machine has accelerated movement along the bed up and down using an electric motor. The machine is controlled through a special remote control that is mounted on a flexible hose, which ensures the location of the device in any place convenient for the operator.
Four side planer
Such equipment carries out simultaneous planing of the workpiece in one pass from all sides. Planing takes place along the shaped profile, which guarantees the creation of a crest, dowel, molding, and also the front part in the form of skirting boards, platbands, and cornices.
And all this in one pass. The four-sided planing machine combines three strasses in one strass: planer, planer, and milling. On such a machine there is a lower and upper horizontal knife shaft, which is equipped with straight knives and two straight vertically spindles.
Spindles are needed for attaching knife heads, milling cutters, or chucks that are equipped with shaped knives. Vertical spindles, together with the lower knife shaft, are mounted on the bed and the working plate. The upper knife shaft carries out vertical movements, as a result of which a predetermined planing thickness of the workpiece is guaranteed. Spindles can move in the horizontal and vertical plane concerning the thickness and width of the workpiece.
Regardless of the design, wood planers have an excellent level of productivity, durability, and economy. At the same time, they provide high-quality end products that will meet all international quality standards.